A Range-Independent Disparity-Based Calibration Model for Structured Light Pattern-Based RGBD Sensor
This publication appears in: Sensors
Authors: W. Li, Y. Li, W. Darwish, S. Tang, Y. Hu and W. Chen
Publication Date: Jan. 2020
Consumer-grade RGBD sensors that provide both colour and depth information have many potential applications, such as robotics control, localization, and mapping, due to their low cost and simple operation. However, the depth measurement provided by consumer-grade RGBD sensors is still inadequate for many high-precision applications, such as rich 3D reconstruction, accurate object recognition and precise localization, due to the fact that the systematic errors of RGB sensors increase exponentially with the ranging distance. Most existing calibration models for depth measurement must be carried out with different distances. In this paper, we reveal the mechanism of how an infrared (IR) camera and IR projector contribute to the overall non-centrosymmetric distortion of a structured light pattern-based RGBD sensor. Then, a new two-step calibration method for RGBD sensors based on the disparity measurement is proposed, which is range-independent and has full frame coverage. Three independent calibration models are used for the calibration for the three main components of the RGBD sensor errors: the infrared camera distortion, the infrared projection distortion, and the infrared cone-caused bias. Experiments show the proposed calibration method can provide precise calibration results in full-range and full-frame coverage of depth measurement. The offset in the edge area of long-range depth (8 m) is reduced from 86 cm to 30 cm, and the relative error is reduced from 11% to 3% of the range distance. Overall, at far range the proposed calibration method can improve the depth accuracy by 70% in the central region of depth frame and 65% in the edge region.