Publication Details
Frederic E. Lecouvet, Marie-Christiane Vekemans, Thomas Van Den Berghe, Koenraad Verstraete, Thomas Kirchgesner, Souad Acid, Jacques Malghem, Joris Wuts, Jens Hillengass, Vincent Vandecaveye, Francois Jamar, Olivier Gheysens, Bruno C. Vande Berg

Skeletal Radiology

Contribution To Journal


Bone imaging has been intimately associated with the diagnosis and staging of multiple myeloma (MM) for more than 5 decades, as the presence of bone lesions indicates advanced disease and dictates treatment initiation. The methods used have been evolving, and the historical radiographic skeletal survey has been replaced by whole body CT, whole body MRI (WB-MRI) and [ 18 F]FDG-PET/CT for the detection of bone marrow lesions and less frequent extramedullary plasmacytomas. Beyond diagnosis, imaging methods are expected to provide the clinician with evaluation of the response to treatment. Imaging techniques are consistently challenged as treatments become more and more efficient, inducing profound response, with more subtle residual disease. WB-MRI and FDG-PET/CT are the methods of choice to address these challenges, being able to assess disease progression or response and to detect “minimal” residual disease, providing key prognostic information and guiding necessary change of treatment. This paper provides an up-to-date overview of the WB-MRI and PET/CT techniques, their observations in responsive and progressive disease and their role and limitations in capturing minimal residual disease. It reviews trials assessing these techniques for response evaluation, points out the limited comparisons between both methods and highlights their complementarity with most recent molecular methods (next-generation flow cytometry, next-generation sequencing) to detect minimal residual disease. It underlines the important role of PET/MRI technology as a research tool to compare the effectiveness and complementarity of both methods to address the key clinical questions.

DOI scopus