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Rita Jacobs, Robert Wise, Ivan Myatchin, Domien Vanhonacker, Andrea Minini, Michaël Maurits M Mekeirele, Andrew W Kirkpatrick, Bruno Pereira, Michael Sugrue, Bart De Keulenaer, Zsolt Bodnar, Stefan Acosta, Janeth C Ejike, Salar Tayebi, Johan Stiens, Colin Cordemans, Niels van Regenmortel, Paul W G Elbers, Xavier Monnet, Adrian Wong, ne_list"Wojciech Dabrowski, Philippe G. Jorens, Jan De Waele, Derek J Roberts, Edward J Kimball, Annika Reintam Blaser, Manu Malbrain
 

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Abstract 

Background: General pathophysiological mechanisms regarding associations between fluid administration and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) are evident, but specific effects of type, amount, and timing of fluids are less clear. Objectives: This review aims to summarize current knowledge on associations between fluid administration and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and fluid management in patients at risk of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Methods: We performed a structured literature search from 1950 until May 2021 to identify evidence of associations between fluid management and intra-abdominal pressure not limited to any specific study or patient population. Findings were summarized based on the following information: general concepts of fluid management, physiology of fluid movement in patients with intra-abdominal hypertension, and data on associations between fluid administration and IAH. Results: We identified three randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 38 prospective observational studies, 29 retrospective studies, 18 case reports in adults, two observational studies and 10 case reports in children, and three animal studies that addressed associations between fluid administration and IAH. Associations between fluid resuscitation and IAH were confirmed in most studies. Fluid resuscitation contributes to the development of IAH. However, patients with IAH receive more fluids to manage the effect of IAH on other organ systems, thereby causing a vicious cycle. Timing and approach to de-resuscitation are of utmost importance, but clear indicators to guide this decision-making process are lacking. In selected cases, only surgical decompression of the abdomen can stop deterioration and prevent further morbidity and mortality. Conclusions: Current evidence confirms an association between fluid resuscitation and secondary IAH, but optimal fluid management strategies for patients with IAH remain controversial.

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