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Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

Contribution To Journal

Abstract 

Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive method used for cardiovascular monitoring, with multi-wavelength PPG (MW-PPG) enhancing its efficacy by using multiple wavelengths for improved assessment. This study explores how contact force (CF) variations impact MW-PPG signals. Data from 11 healthy subjects are analyzed to investigate the still understudied specific effects of CF on PPG signals. The obtained dataset includes simultaneous recording of five PPG wavelengths (470, 525, 590, 631, and 940 nm), CF, skin temperature, and the tonometric measurement derived from CF. The evolution of raw signals and the PPG DC and AC components are analyzed in relation to the increasing and decreasing faces of the CF. Findings reveal individual variability in signal responses related to skin and vasculature properties and demonstrate hysteresis and wavelength-dependent responses to CF changes. Notably, all wavelengths except 631 nm showed that the DC component of PPG signals correlates with CF trends, suggesting the potential use of this component as an indirect CF indicator. However, further validation is needed for practical application. The study underscores the importance of biomechanical properties at the measurement site and inter-individual variability and proposes the arterial pressure wave as a key factor in PPG signal formation.

Reference 
 
 
DOI scopus